Temple of Kukulkán
The Temple of Kukulkán is a Mayan temple of XII century. It was built by the Itzan Mayas (mayas itzaíes in spanish) in its capital: the city of Chichén Itzá. It has a pyramid shape, and has nine levels, four facades with its stairway and an upper platform with a small temple.
It was built as a place of cult to Kukulkán, which has similarities with the Feathered Serpent, Quetzalcóatl, the supreme god. Kukulkán is a Mayan name that can be translated as Feathered Serpent. For some, it is the same Quetzalcóatl of the Aztecs. According to the Mayan chronicles, Kukulcán, like Quetzalcoatl, is the conqueror who came to Yucatán by the sea from the west, towards the end of the XI century, and became the leader and founder of the civilization. Of the merge of the two myths, Kukulcán appears as the lord of the wind and rain that rules and governs the ship that led him to Yucatán and the people who he founded.
About the Mayas, the Mayan civilization is mainly focused on Yucatán, where many ruins remain. The main center of the Mayan culture is Chichén Itzá, where this temple is.
The Mayan temple, like the Aztec, was formed as a stepped pyramid with steps forward. The palaces, which is supposed to have been housing for priests, were cloisters composed of a succession of chambers. Exceptionally, circular plant is used. As cover is often used the false vault.
America is a very large continent and it is separated from the others. Mesoamerican cultures were a set of cultures that develop in this area and represent the transition between the rural matriarchy and urban patriarchy. The Mayans developed in Mesoamerica and Central America, as already said, in the Yucatán peninsula.
In conclusion, Precolumbian cultures are something that is almost forgotten but they are also there, and is something to consider for those interested in history of art. Their achievements have been compared even with the Egyptians, and they had their own mythology and their gods. It is an interesting and undervalued civilization.
It is located on the Yucatán Peninsula, in Yucatán, México.